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Home >> Specialities >> Cardiology

Department of Cardiology

What is interventional cardiology?
Interventional Cardiology is a globally recognised technique of cardiac care that uses a minimally invasive approach to diagnose and treat various diseases and ailments affecting the heart. It involves the use of cardiac catheterization technique with a tiny flexible tube, known as a catheter, for carrying out the procedure. This is introduced inside the body via a tiny keyhole skin puncture and guided with the help of imaging by a camera with an x-ray detector. The technique can help to perform the most complex cardiac procedures with minimal risks of complications and good outcomes. 

Conditions that can be treated using the Interventional Cardiology
There are a variety of different conditions that can be treated using interventional cardiology. The most common of these are:

  • Coronary artery disease: It is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases marked by restricted flow of blood in the arteries due to the build-up of plaque or narrowing of the arteries or clot formation in arteries, leading to an acute heart attack.
  • Valvular heart disease: This refers to any disease or ailment that affects the heart valves, which are 4 in number. The condition may affect only 1 valve or more at the same time. 
  • Peripheral vascular disease: It is a circulation disorder that progresses over time and is marked by restricted blood flow to the limbs, which is primarily due to plaque accumulation. 
  • Carotid Artery Disease: A condition with restricted blood flow into the brain through the carotid arteries.
  • Aortic Aneurysms: A condition due to ballooning of the aorta in its ascending or descending part in the thorax or abdomen.  
  • Rhythm Disorders: The condition is marked by an irregularity in the otherwise normal heart rhythm, that has been associated with an increased risk of clotting, stroke, and heart failure, it may be as ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia or atrial fibrillation, or heart conduction blocks.  
  • Congenital heart disease: It is an umbrella term used for a variety of structural and functional heart defects that are present since birth, which means that a baby is born with these. While some of these conditions can be treated while the baby is still inside the womb, others are to be addressed after it is born. 

Common procedures in interventional cardiology:

  • Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Placement: PTCA with or without stent can be done by a procedure, recommended for patients with a blocked or narrowed artery, and aims at restoring the normal flow of blood. It involves the use of a catheter fitted with a balloon on one tip. The catheter is guided toward the affected area and the balloon is inflated to clear the blockage, following this, a stent is threaded over a wire into the artery and deployed at the sight using a balloon. A stent is a tiny, narrow tube made up of metal mesh that helps to prevent coronary blockage in the future. Some stents also contain medication that is absorbed slowly and gradually. 
  • Percutaneous Valve Implantation: The aortic valve is dilated using a balloon catheter and then an artificial valve is implanted via the same route (TAVI) or it can be done at the mitral valve (TMVI). Similarly, the Tricuspid valve can be treated by a balloon and a ring. Other, structural heart defects, like apertures (ASD, VSD, PDA) can be closed, using an umbrella device. 
  • Peripheral Angioplasty: As in coronary angioplasty, balloon dilatation and stent placement can be done in peripheral arteries in upper and lower limbs with or without a stent.
  • Carotid Angioplasty: when angioplasty is done in the carotid arteries taking blood supply from the heart to the brain then it’s called carotid angioplasty. Similarly, angioplasty, coiling, and embolization can be done in the cerebral arteries of the brain for patients with stroke. 
  • Endo Stent Grafting:  For aortic aneurism in the thoracic or abdominal aorta, large endograft stents can be deployed in the aorta, removing the risk for rupture or bleeding from the aorta. 
  • EP study and RF Ablation: Electrophysiology studies are globally used modality for assessing the electrical impulses generated by the heart. These are conducted with the help of a catheter fitted with an electrode that helps to locate the extra or accessory pathway and deliver controlled electrical impulses to treat certain types of arrhythmia.
  • Electrical Cardioversion: It involves the use of small paddles or patches to deliver controlled, low-voltage electrical current to certain areas of the heart with the aim of normalizing the heart rhythm. 
  • ICD implantation: ICDs or implantable cardioverter defibrillators are tiny implantable devices that help to monitor heart rhythm and deliver electrical signals to regulate the same in the case of any abnormality and treat heart failure. 
  • Pacemaker Implantation: A pacemaker is a battery-powered device that is surgically implanted in the chest of a patient suffering from bradycardia, a condition marked by an abnormally slow heartbeat.
  • Congenital Heart Intervention: As an adult, treatment of structural heart disease or valves or apertures can be done to treat congenital heart disease in infants and children. 

Treatments & Surgeries

  • Myocardial Infarction

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a life-threatenin...

  • Hypertension

    Hypertension, commonly  known as high blood pressure, is a silent and in...

  • Heart Failure

    Heart  failure is a prevalent and serious medical condition that affects...

  • Rhythm Disorders

    Rhythm  disorders also known as arrhythmias, are irregularities in the h...

  • Arrhythmia

    The heart, an organ often associated with romantic emotions and metaphors, is...

  • Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a common circulatory  condition tha...

  • Aortic Aneurysms

    Aortic aneurysms are a potentially life-threatening medical condition that in...

  • Carotid Artery Disease

    Carotid Artery Disease (CAD) is a common vascular condition that affects the ...

  • Congenital Heart Diseases

    Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are a group of structural or functional abno...

  • Valvular Heart Disease

    Valvular heart disease is a complex cardiovascular condition that affects the...

  • Understanding Coronary Artery Disease

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a prevalent and potentially life-threatening...

  • Balloon Angioplasty

    Cardiovascular diseases continue to be a leading global health concern, and i...

  • Stent Placement

    When arteries become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup, restoring pro...

  • Pacemaker Implantation

    Heart rhythm disorders, or arrhythmias, can significantly impact a person'...

  • Percutaneous Valve Implantation

    Heart valve disease is a serious condition that affects millions of people wo...

  • Electrical Cardioversion

    Irregular heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, can disrupt the normal functioning o...

  • Carotid Angioplasty

    Carotid artery disease poses a significant risk to brain health, potentially ...

  • Peripheral Angioplasty

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects millions of people worldwide and can ...

  • ICD Implantation

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a life-threatening event that affects many individua...

  • Congenital Heart Intervention

    Congenital heart defects are conditions present at birth that affect the stru...



How can regular heart check-ups help you?

A - Our experts at Sanar International Hospitals greatly emphasise the importance of regular heart check-ups, as these can prove beneficial in the following ways:

  • Detection of early signs of serious heart problems makes it possible to facilitate timely medical intervention.
  • A keen assessment of various risk factors that make you more susceptible to developing heart problems in the future
  • Keeping track of existing heart problems and how they are responding to treatment
  • Understanding various preventive measures that can lower or prevent the risks of heart disease

What are the common diagnostic procedures used in cardiology?

A - Various diagnostic procedures that are used in cardiology include:

  • Electrocardiogram, or ECG (EKG), which assesses the electrical activity of the heart
  • Echocardiogram, or ECHO, to generate detailed images of heart structure
  • Stress test, or treadmill test, to analyse how the heart performs under stress.
  • Cardiac catheterization to detect, assess, and treat vascular abnormalities such as blockage or narrowing
  • Holter monitoring, for continuous monitoring of the heart’s electrical activity (for 24 hours)
  • Cardiac MRI, which helps to assess the structure and function of the heart by generating detailed images
  • Coronary angiography, for assessing the flow of blood via the coronary arteries

What are the major symptoms related to heart problems?

A - Heart problems can give rise to a variety of symptoms that may vary from one person to another. The most common of these include:

  • Chest pain or angina
  • Breathlessness
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Syncope
  • Accelerated heartbeat
  • Irregular heart rhythm
  • Swollen limbs due to oedema
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Chest pain that radiates towards the jaw, neck, shoulder, and arm

Is it possible to reduce the risk of heart disease?

A - Yes, it is possible to lower the risk of certain heart diseases. You can do this by:

  • Following healthy and mindful eating practises
  • Staying physically active and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Managing healthy blood pressure and blood sugar levels
  • Going for regular heart checkups
  • Keeping your cholesterol levels in check
  • Finding better ways to manage stress

What are congenital heart problems?

A - Congenital heart problem, also referred to as a congenital heart defect, is an umbrella term used for a wide range of structural and functional heart abnormalities that are present in a baby since birth. These are developmental defects that affect around 8 to 12 children per 1000 live births. Some of the most common congenital heart defects include:

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
  • Transposition of great arteries (TGA)
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Stenosis of the pulmonary valve

Who is at risk of developing heart problems?

A - There are several factors that have been associated with the increased risk of heart disease. Some of these have been listed below:

  • Advanced age, with the risks being higher in males above 45 and females above 55 years of age.
  • Having a family history of heart disease
  • Being a male
  • Having high blood pressure
  • Having uncontrolled blood sugar
  • Having elevated cholesterol levels
  • Smoking and heavy drinking
  • Being obese
  • Unhealthy eating practises
  • Stressful lifestyle

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