What is cardiothoracic vascular surgery?
Cardiothoracic vascular surgery is popularly referred to as CTVS. It is an umbrella term used for surgical interventions that aim at diagnosing and treating the entire gamut of diseases and ailments affecting the blood vessels, as well as the organs of the cardiothoracic cavity, which includes the lungs and heart. Such conditions are usually associated with high morbidity and mortality, making them a grave cause of concern globally. These also include various types of malignancies and tumours, such as lung cancer, which happens to be one of the top causes of cancer-related mortality across the globe. Experts from the top cardiac hospital in Gurgaon suggest that cardiothoracic and vascular conditions are not just limited to metabolic and environmental factors, and can also be a result of genetic conditions, congenital defects and underlying problems like vascular stenosis.
Understanding some common types of Cardiothoracic vascular surgeries:
Angioplasty and stent placement - The surgical intervention invoice the use of a balloon to open a clogged artery. The balloon is introduced inside the patient's body with the help of a catheter, using detailed imaging guidance. Once the catheter is in the right position, the balloon is inflated to open the narrow artery. Once the blockage has been cleared the balloon is deflated and removed along with the catheter. To prevent the narrowing of the artery in future, the doctors may use a stent to hold it in place.
- Pacemakers and ICDs - These are tiny devices that are surgically implanted inside the patient's chest to help their heart beat normally. These are recommended for patients suffering from arrhythmia, a condition marked by abnormal heartbeats. Pacemakers are usually recommended for treating bradycardia whereas ICDs are the prefered treatment option for ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
- CABG - It stands for coronary artery bypass graft, a surgical intervention that is performed on patients with blocked coronary arteries. It helps to create a new route around the blocked section of the artery by taking a healthy blood vessel from some other part of the patient's body and connecting it above and below the blocked section of the coronary artery. This new route helps to bypass the blocked section, thereby restoring the normal flow of blood. The procedure is highly recommended by the best interventional cardiologist in Gurgaon.
- Heart valve replacement - As the name suggests, the procedure involves the replacement of a diseased heart valve with a prosthetic valve, that may be mechanical or biological. The surgical procedure may be performed by an open heart surgery or using a minimally invasive approach that uses detailed imaging guidance to direct the surgical tools. Trans catheter aortic valve replacement is one of the most common heart valve replacement surgeries, that is minimally invasive in nature.
- Ventricular assist device - It is commonly referred to as a mechanical circulatory support device as it assists the lower chambers of the heart, i.e. the ventricles, to pump blood to various different parts of the body. The device may be implanted in either one or both ventricles of your heart. There are three different reasons for which a ventricular assist device may be used. It may serve as a bridge to transplant for the patients who are waiting for a heart transplant but haven't got a donor yet, as a destination therapy for those patients who do not qualify for the heart transplant or as a bridge to recovery for patients with heart failure, till there heart is healthy to beat on its own.
- Heart transplant - The surgical intervention involves the replacement of a failing heart with a healthy heart taken from a deceased donor. The procedure is recommended to patients only after they stop responding to medication and other treatments. Some common conditions that may be responsible for heart failure include cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, congenital heart defects and ventricular arrhythmias. A heart transplant may also be recommended if you've had the surgery earlier but it has failed.
- Lung transplant - It is a complex surgical procedure recommended for patients with end-stage lung failure. The surgery involves the removal of the damaged or diseased lungs and replacing them with healthy lobes of lungs taken from a suitable owner. Depending upon the overall health evaluation of the patient it is decided whether only one or both of the lungs need to be replaced. Some common conditions that can progress and call for the need for a lung transplant include cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis.
- Carotid surgery - The procedure is also referred to as carotid endarterectomy and is one of the most prefered treatment options for carotid artery disease, which is mass by the build-up of plaque in the carotid artery. If left untreated, this can disrupt the flow of blood to the brain, thereby leading to stroke. Carotid surgery, which is performed under the influence of local or general anaesthesia, aims at restoring the normal flow of blood to the brain by removing the blockage in the carotid artery. In some cases, doctors may use a different technique in which the character artery is cut and turned inside out. This is commonly referred to as eversion carotid endarterectomy.
- Pleurectomy - The surgical intervention invoice the removal of the pleura, which is the lining that separates the chest wall and the lungs. This is done to prevent the accumulation of fluids in the affected area. The treatment is recommended for patients with mesothelioma. The surgery is usually palliative in nature and primarily aims at relieving the symptoms to improve the quality of the patient's life. The procedure may also be performed on patience experiencing spontaneous Pneumothorax with the aim of preventing any more lung collapse
- Lung volume reduction surgery - LVRS is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disabling dyspnea or emphysema, so as to improve the quality of their lives. The surgical procedure involves the extraction of the effective part of the lungs while leaving the healthier part intact. The procedure can help the patient to brief better by enhancing their lungs capacity. However, the best cardiac surgeons in Gurgaon suggest that the outcomes of the surgery may vary from one person to another depending on multiple factors, including the extent of damage to the lung tissues, its location and the patient's overall health.
Dr. D.K. Jhamb
Director & Head of the Department