Obesity is a problem that affects around 13% of the adult population worldwide. In the World Obesity Atlas, published by the World Obesity Federation, it has been predicted that by 2030, nearly one billion people will be living with the problem. This is quite alarming as obesity has been linked with a wide range of health complications. Bariatric surgery is an umbrella term used for various surgical interventions that aid a person in losing weight more efficiently and quickly. This blog, by an expert specialising in bariatric surgery in Gurugram will help you understand all you need to know about the procedure and how it can help you.
Obesity: A global concern
Obesity is a complex disease marked by the excessive buildup of fats in the body. While some may think that it is just a cosmetic problem, the reality is that obesity can affect your overall health, increasing your vulnerability to serious and potentially life-threatening diseases and ailments related to the heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and so on. Obesity can be a result of various factors that include poor eating habits, a sedentary lifestyle, lack of sleep, genetic factors, or an underlying medical condition.
A person is said to be obese if he/she has a body mass index or BMI greater than or equal to 30. People with a BMI of 40 or more are considered to be morbidly obese.
Bariatric surgery: An effective way to get rid of those extra pounds
Bariatric surgery is usually recommended for people who have tried all other options to lose weight, but without any success. The surgery works by reducing the size of the patient's stomach to decrease the appetite and absorption of nutrients. They also have positive hormonal influence in the body. The best bariatric surgeons in Gurgaon suggest that the procedure is safe and works well for people who:
It is also important to note that bariatric surgery is only a part of the solution and you still need to develop a healthy lifestyle and eating habits for meeting your healthy weight goals.
Types of bariatric surgery
There are several ways in which a bariatric surgery is done. Bariatric surgery is performed under general anaesthesia and usually done via a laparoscopic (key hole) approach requiring only 1-3 days stay in hospital. A surgeon makes few small incisions (varies from 5mm-12mm) on your abdomen. A laparoscope, a thin instrument with a light and camera on the end, is inserted through one of the incisions, allowing the surgeon to clearly view the internal organs on a monitor. Small surgical instruments are inserted through the other incisions to perform the surgery.
The most commonly performed bariatric surgery are -
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - Commonly referred to as gastric bypass, it is one of the oldest bariatric surgeries. The procedure is usually done via the laparoscopic approach. The patient's stomach is divided into two parts - a small pouch on the top and the lower section which is significantly larger. The latter is then bypassed by connecting the small intestine with the upper pouch. Since the size of the stomach is greatly reduced, it is not able to hold much food, and as such the absorption of calories is also reduced. Undergoing a gastric Bypass surgery can help to reduce the patient's appetite as well as hunger, thereby allowing the patient to attain optimal weight. The procedure is a little complex as compared to other weight loss procedures, however, it is reliable and has long-term weight loss benefits.
Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy- the surgical procedure involves the removal of approximately 80% of the patient's stomach, leaving behind a tiny pouch which holds very little food. Since most of the hunger hormones are produced inside the stomach, this helps to greatly reduce the appetite of the patient as well as positively regulate the metabolism by increasing fullness and supporting healthy blood sugar control. Sleeve gastrectomy can be used as a bridge to treat patients who are about to undergo gastric bypass. The procedure is non-reversible, however, the results are quite effective with least risks. Hence, today, it is the most common bariatric surgery performed worldwide.
Adjustable gastric band(LAGB)- The band is nothing but a silicone device that is surgically implanted on the top part of the patient's stomach with the aim of reducing the patient's appetite. An adjustable gastric band helps to divide the stomach into two parts which are connected by a very tiny opening. When you eat food, the upper part, which is significantly smaller in size, gets filled up very quickly. It then gradually passes into rest of the stomach via the tiny hole, allowing you to feel full for a long period of time. The procedure is reversible and the band can be easily removed when needed. The results are not as fast as compared to other procedures, however, the risk of complications is significantly lower. But, due to band related issues and lesser efficacy compared to sleeve gastrectomy and bypass procedures; this procedure has gone out of favour especially in India.
Mini-gastric Bypass- Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) is a simpler laparoscopic gastric bypass weight loss surgery. It has been recently renamed as One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (OAGB). The operation usually takes shorter time and is less complicated than a traditional R –en- Y gastric bypass with similar results and hence getting popular. The first step is to reduce the size of the stomach, so that it holds less food. The stomach is converted into a long slender pouch up to the lower part by stapling. The second step of the surgery involves the creation of a bypass for food to flow from the new stomach pouch. A loop of small intestine preferably between 150 and 250 cms is chosen for anastomosis depending upon the BMI and the metabolic condition of the patient. The middle section of intestine is attached to the opening in the stomach pouch creating what is referred to as the "omega loop". The loop enables food to bypass the lower stomach, duodenum, and a portion of the small intestine which results in less food absorption and metabolic effects.
If you wish to know more about bariatric surgery and how it can help you, consult the experts from the best hospital in Gurugram.
Dr. Vinay Kumar Shaw,
HOD & Senior Consultant, GI, Minimal Access & Bariatric Surgery
Sanar International Hospitals, Gurugram