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Home >> Specialities >> Neurosciences >> Neurosurgery >> Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury refers to complex injuries of the brain that may be sustained due to a violent blow, Trauma, or Accident. Such injuries can affect any part of the brain and give rise to varied symptoms. Mild injuries can result in temporary damage whereas severe injuries can be permanently debilitating. Timely medical intervention can help to save the life of the patient, as well as improve the quality of their lives.

What are the different types of Traumatic Brain Injury?
Traumatic Brain injuries are broadly classified into two types:

  • Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury - It is a type of traumatic brain injury marked by the penetration of a foreign object into the skull, which is likely to affect only one part of the brain.
  • Non-penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury - It is a type of Traumatic Brain Injury that results from a blunt external force. In this case, there is no penetration. 

Some common Traumatic Brain Injuries 

  • Diffuse axonal injury, marked by severe damage to the white matter, found within the brain
  • Concussion, which may last for a couple of minutes or a few months 
  • Hematomas, refer to brain bleed caused by the rupturing of a blood vessel. 
  • Contusions, which refers to bruising and swelling in the brain caused by the rupturing of tiny blood vessels 
  • Skull fracture, marked by a crack or break in the skull bones 
  • Chronic Traumatic encephalopathy is marked by progressive degeneration of the brain function.

What causes Traumatic Brain Injury?
Traumatic Brain Injury is caused by a direct or indirect impact on the brain. There are a variety of different factors that may be responsible for it. These include:

  • Traumatic blow
  • Forceful bump or hit to the head 
  • Falling or tripping 
  • Road traffic accident
  • Sports injuries
  • Domestic violence or child abuse
  • Being shot by a gun 
  • Explosion 
  • Being hit by a sharp or blunt object 

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