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Chronic Kidney Disease: Getting familiar with the most common types
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Chronic Kidney Disease: Getting familiar with the most common types

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a term used for gradual loss of kidney function that progresses over months or years, eventually resulting in renal failure. At present, more than 10 per cent of the world's population is living with chronic kidney disease, which roughly equals more than 800 million people.

Chronic kidney disease can affect people of any age group, including children. In fact, the global prevalence is 15 to 74.4 cases per million children and the prevalence increases with age. Early detection and proper care can help to effectively manage chronic kidney disease and alleviate various life-threatening complications associated with it. However, this is possible only if we educate ourselves and seek medical advice at the earliest. Continue reading this blog, by the leading Nephrologist and kidney transplant in india, to know more about chronic kidney disease and its most common causes.

What is Chronic Kidney Disease and how it affects us?

The kidneys form a part of the excretory system, which is responsible for removing unwanted wastes from the body. However, this is not the only function that the kidneys are involved in. The two bean-shaped organs are also responsible for regulating the production of important hormones & red blood cells, balancing the body's fluids and producing active Vitamin D. There are, however, many different conditions that can affect the kidneys, thereby interfering with their ability to perform all these functions. Such conditions can either lead to an abrupt loss of renal function or gradual deterioration of the same. The former is known as acute kidney disease (AKI), whereas the latter is known as chronic kidney disease or (CKD).

Chronic kidney disease starts with silent symptoms, which means that the patient does not experience any unusual symptoms in the beginning but tend to develop symptoms with time, as the condition progresses. Initially, the patient is likely to experience hypertension and fluid retention leading to the last stage which is renal failure. The kidneys are not able to play their role in the excretion of wastes, which then continue to build up in the body, resulting in life-threatening consequences.

Getting familiar with the most common types of Chronic Kidney diseases:

Diabetes - Around 422 million people, worldwide, are living with diabetes, a condition marked by the increased level of blood glucose in the body. This can either be due to the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or the inability of the body to use the produced insulin. Diabetes is commonly seen in people who are overweight or obese. Diabetes is most common cause of chronic kidney disease and renal failure worldwide.

Hypertension - Uncontrolled hypertension due to this reason may lead to chronic kidney disease and which can further lead to hypertension. Optimum control of blood pressure is important for prevention and slowing progression of CKD.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis - Our kidneys have a tiny network of blood vessels that serve as filters for purifying our blood. These are known as glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis is a condition marked by the inability of the glomeruli to perform this function due to inflammation caused by damage. Many diseases like IgA Nephropathy, Lupus Nephritis etc. can cause glomerulonephritis and if not treated properly it will lead to CKD and kidney failure.

Polycystic Kidney Disease - Is an inherited condition in which fluid-filled sacs called cysts develop in both the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease can occur in both adult and children. If not treated properly, it can lead to kidney failure.

Stone Disease- Kidney stone disease is seen in around 5% to 10% of general population during lifetime. It can lead to chronic kidney disease, which can further lead to obstruction and recurrent urinary tract infections. In such cases, following up with nephrologist is important.

Wondering if you have Chronic Kidney Disease?

As mentioned earlier, chronic kidney disease can affect anyone, irrespective of whether you have a family history or not. Top kidney specialist in Gurugram suggests that the best possible way to know is to go for proper evaluation and assessment as soon as you start experiencing any of the following symptoms.

  • Uncontrolled hypertension
  • Anaemia
  • Swelling in legs
  • General body weakness and fatigue
  • Unusual decrease in urine output
  • Traces of blood in the urine or cola colored urine
  • Unexplained loss of appetite
  • Development of red itchy patches on the skin
  • Increased frequency of urine particularly at night

If you wish to know more about chronic kidney disease and its management, consult the best nephrologist and kidney transplant physician in Gurugram today.

Dr. Sumit Sharma, Director and Head of the Department

Urology, Uro-Oncology, Andrology, Uro-Robotics

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